ISSN: 0041-3216 (Online), 0041-3216 (Print)
Volume 89 Number 4
Energy auditing of different weed management practices for wheat in India. (229)
An analysis of the energy requirements for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out at Project Directorate for Cropping Systems research, Modipuram, Meerut during the year of 2000-01 to 2003-04. The weed management practices such as hand weeding twice, herbicides + one hand weeding, criss-cross sowing + one hand weeding, criss-cross sowing + herbicides + one hand weeding, unweeded check were subjected to wheat cropping to assess the energy use, out put energy obtained and net return of energy. Results revealed that the total input energy utilization in wheat varied from 19589.0 MJ/ha to 20472.1 MJ/ha for treatments unweeded check and criss-cross + herbicides + hand weeding, respectively. The energy use by inorganic fertilizers represented the major part of total energy use accounting about 50 per cent followed by machinery used about 20 per cent in all treatments, whereas, irrigation consumed about 17 per cent energy use of total input energy. Total amount of energy use in weed management was varied from 1.93 to 4.22 per cent of the total input energy. Hand weeding twice was found to be more energy consuming than other treatments. This was followed by herbicides + hand weeding once as well as criss-cross sowing + herbicides + hand weeding once. The energy utilization for weed management was found from 11.6 to 21.9 per cent higher in traditional seedbed as compared with stale seedbed. The criss-cross sowing + herbicides + hand weeding once gave from 71 to 76, from 18 to 19, from 14 to 15 and from 1 to 3 per cent higher output energy as compared with unweeded, criss-cross sowing + hand weeding once, hand weeding twice and herbicides + hand weeding once, respectively. The net return energy, among five treatments, was found to be significantly higher in treatment criss-cross sowing + herbicides + hand weeding once (i.e. 71583.9 MJ/ha) and was statistically at par with herbicides + hand weeding once (i.e 70128.2 MJ/ha) which were significantly higher than other treatments. This was followed by hand weeding twice (i.e. 58168.6 MJ/ha) which was non-significantly higher than criss-cross sowing + hand weeding once (i.e. 54473.9 MJ/ha). The net return energy in criss-cross sowing + herbicides + hand weeding once was found to be from 89 to 96 per cent higher than unweeded, from 23 to 25 per cent higher than criss-cross sowing + hand weeding once, from 18 to 20 per cent higher than hand weeding twice and 3 per cent higher than herbicides + hand weeding once.
Keywords: Energy auditing, weed management