ISSN: 0041-3216 (Online), 0041-3216 (Print)
Volume 92 Number 4
Utilization of raw, aqueous heated and fermented bambara groundnuts in diets of broiler chickens. (297)
An experiment was conducted to assess the effects of raw, aqueous – heated and fermented bambara groundnuts on performance characteristics, blood biochemical profile and organ morphology of broiler chickens in an eight week feeding trial. The aqueous heating treatment involved soaking the seeds in cold water for 24h prior to cooking in fresh water for 1h. The fermentation method involved soaking the raw seeds in cold water for 24h after which the seeds were put in a fermentor for 72h. The raw, aqueous – heated and fermented bambara groundnuts were incorporated into the diets at 200g/kg DM. Haemagglutinin and trypsin inhibitor activities were analyzed and found to be completely destroyed in the aqueous – heated bambara groundnuts but high amounts were retained in the fermented bambara groundnuts. Feed intake significantly (P<0.05) reduced in the birds fed raw bambara groundnuts (69.6g/day) and fermented bambara groundnuts (71.5g/day) based diets. Weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio also followed a similar trend to that of the feed intake. The hematological blood profile showed marked (p<0.05) reductions in haemoglobin (6.02g/dl; 7.23g/dl), red blood cells (2.14 x 1012/l; 2.65 x 1012/l), packed cell volume( 23.09% ; 26.65%) and white blood cells (1.56 x 109/l ; 2.01 x 109/l) of birds fed raw bambara groundnuts and fermented bambara groundnuts based diets, respectively. Higher significant (p<0.05) increases were obtained in the serum creatinine, alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase and glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase levels in birds fed the raw bambara groundnuts and fermented bambara groundnuts based diets respectively. The results on organ morphology showed similar (P>0.05) weights of liver and pancreas of birds between birds fed control diet and those fed aqueous – heated bambara groundnuts based diet respectively. The best significant (P<0.05) improvements in the response indices were obtained in birds fed aqueous heated bambara groundnuts.
Keywords: Bambara groundnuts, processing, broilers, performance