ISSN: 0041-3216 (Online), 0041-3216 (Print)
Volume 94 Number 4
Development and competition of hybrid maize seed market in Thailand: The roles of public and private sectors
The commercialization of the hybrid maize in Thailand in the 1980s boosted yields and domestic production significantly. The success of varietal development of commercial maize hybrids is owed to the investments of international donors during the 1980s and continuous breeding efforts of multinational seed companies even as public institutions played a key role in maintaining genetic resources conservation and pre-commercial lines research. Today hybrid maize varieties are planted in nearly all domestic cultivation areas. Thailand is the second largest field crop seed exporter in Asia with maize contributing the highest value to seed exports. This paper reviews the history of maize varietal development in Thailand and the roles of public and private institutions. Furthermore, a collection of commercial maize varieties adopted by farmers in 2013/14 cropping calendar is disclosed using an expert elicitation method. The estimated market shares from adoption areas and the comparison of differentiation and similarity of adopted maize varieties suggest that the maize seed market in Thailand is moderately concentrated with tendencies towards oligopolistic competition. It is suggested that the public sector continues to lead in pre-commercial R&D and provide support to small- and medium- sized local companies for them to be viable and competitive in the market.
Keywords: Hybrid maize, market structure, adoption, seed, commercialization