Morphological, physicochemical and proximate composition of two Philippine bignay (Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng) cultivars at different maturity stages
Keywords:Fruit ripening, Philippine berry, Common cultivar, Kalabaw cultivar, morphology
Bignay (Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng) is an underutilised native berry grown in several Asian countries including the Philippines. Limited studies have been carried out on specific bignay cultivars and their fruit maturity stages. This study aimed to differentiate two cultivars of bignay with respect to their morphology, physicochemical properties, and proximate compositions at different maturity stages. Morphological characterisation showed that the kalabaw cultivar had a superior performance when compared to the common cultivar. Kalabaw’s whole fruit weight (0.47 ‒ 0.54 g), equatorial diameter (8.42 ‒ 9.05 mm), thickness (7.08 ‒ 7.40 mm), flesh weight (0.42 ‒ 0.49 g), flesh thickness (1.58 ‒ 2.20 mm) and edible portion (90.1 ‒ 91.1%) were significantly higher when compared to corresponding common cultivar’s performances; fruit weight 0.28 ‒ 0.34 g, equatorial diameter 7.50 ‒ 8.00 mm, thickness 6.30 ‒ 6.95 mm, flesh weight 0.25 ‒ 0.31 g, flesh thickness 1.33 ‒ 1.90 mm and edible portion 88.5 ‒ 89.5%. The superiority of kalabaw includes the measured seed parameters. For the physicochemical and proximate compositions, there is not much of a difference, while kalabaw had a lower sugar (3.40 ‒ 8.00%) and acidity (0.36 ‒ 0.65%) content, its moisture (13.7 ‒ 18.3%), crude fat (4.64 ‒ 5.66%) and crude fibre (5.37 ‒ 10.10%) content were higher compared to the common cultivar. This study showed that kalabaw could be best used for the production of different value-added products.