The contribution of genotype of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) flavour
Keywords:Cocoa, Quality, Flavour, Sensory evaluation, Processing
AbstractThe possibility of genetic effects on cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) flavour was investigated. Consistent differences in flavour attributes, especially cocoa flavour intensity, acidity, sourness, bitterness, and astringency, were found among the West African Amelonado variety (AML), four Upper Amazon clones [Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo 67 (IMC67), Nanay 33 (NA33), Parinari 7 (PA7), and Scavina 12 (SCA12)], and a Nicaraguan "Criollo" (UIT1) grown in Sabah, Malaysia. The flavour of UIT1 was distinctly different from the West African standard, being characterized by intense bitterness and astringency associated with caffeine and polyphenols; it also tasted the most acid. These attributes were ameliorated by prolonged storage of the pods before processing the wet beans. The six genotypes differed also in bean size and butter fat content. The differences in flavour were independent of the differences in bean size. The results demonstrated a significant contribution of genotype to flavour in addition to effects of processing.