The role of calcium peroxide as an oxygen fertilizer and conditioner is reported for an Oxisol. The soil used in this study was found liable to slacking and consequently, to crust formation, thereby exhibiting low oxygen diffusion rates. The shortage of organic matter as a natural binding agent of the soil particles results in low cohesion and low aggregate stability. From a physical point of view the soil was rated as poor. Addition of calcium peroxide to the soil had favourable effects on sugar beet germination and emergence. It also had favourable effects on gaseous diffusion. Conditioning soil aggregates with CaO2 resulted in a higher aggregation percentage and enhance aggregate stability.