The Ifugao people of Banaue, traditional small farmers in a mountainous area of the Philippines, were interviewed and field trials were conducted to study the adoption of appropriate rice technologies. The farmers preferred varieties improved for earliness, yield and tillering ability relative to traditional land races, while maintaining existing levels of cold tolerance and other adaptive traits. RPKn-2, an improved variety released in 1975, satisfies all the farmers' preferences, yet it has never been widely adopted because of failures in its method of introduction. More adoptable varieties, cropping systems, and soil fertility management practices along with better extension practices are recommended for Banaue. General implications for other studies are also discussed. Both adaptation and introduction must be considered for the successful adoption of new crop technologies by traditional small farmers on marginal lands.