Individual and interactive effects of VA mycorrhizal fungi and root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on cardamom

George V. Thomas, P. Sundararaju, S.S. Ali, S.K. Ghai


The effect of inoculation with six species of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi individually and in different combinations with the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, simultaneously and sequentially, on cardamom was studied at 6 and 12 months after inoculation. Compared with the control, the growth of cardamom plants was significantly improved by inoculation with VA mycorrhizal fungi, whereas nematode inoculation reduced it. The growth response induced by VA mycorrhizal fungi was similar when inoculation was made simultaneously and after nematode inoculation. VA mycorrhizal fungi significantly reduced the nematode population in roots. Colonization of roots by VA mycorrhizal fungi was also obtained when nematodes were inoculated simultaneously and prior to inoculation by VA mycorrhizal fungi. Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall and Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxter sensu Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe were the most effective VA mycorrhizal fungi, able to promote maximum growth response in the absence as well as in presence of root-knot nematodes.


Cardamom; Root-knot nematode; VA mycorrhial fungi; Interaction

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