Tropical root crops are important staples for food security in the 21st century. The major production and consumption of the tropical root crops are concentrated in the regions of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Pacific. It is also in these regions where most of the growth in the world population will occur in the 21st century, placing great pressures on food security and environmental management. Tropical root crops have advantages over other staple foods such as grains, for ecologically sustainable production. They are less dependent on agricultural chemicals for production and post-harvest storage, require little irrigation, can be produced with minimum tillage practices, have high energy efficiency ratios, and generate large amounts of food for minimal effort. Tropical root crops provide important policy choices towards food security and poverty reduction through ecologically sustainable development.