The visual observations on pod and seed characteristics such as changes in colour of seed coat, hilum, cotyledons, pod wall, canopy, and first indication of seed shrinkage (visual and volume) in pod chambers were recorded in developing and maturing pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] cultivars, viz., AL15 and T21 in order to identify the indices of their physiological maturity (PM). The changes in colour of the seed parts and pod wall coincided well with the PM in the two cultivars, and hence, can be used as markers or indices of PM. The characters such as first indication of seed shrinkage in pod chambers and stage when pod walls lose green colour were adjudged to be the best maturity indices as these were easy to visualize and were non-destructive. Changes in the volume of seeds in the two cultivars also confirmed the data on visual seed shrinkage.