Genetic studies were carried out on seed quality characters among 14 sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes to estimate the extent of genetic variation, determine the magnitude of association amongst seed quality characters, and identify rapidly growing genotypes with high seedling vigour, other aspects of seed quality, and seed yield. There were statistically significant differences among the genotypes for all the seed quality characters measured. The variation in excess water stress germination due to stress from excess water, field emergence, standard germination, plumule length, emergence index, emergence rate index, and seedling vigour index were largely genetically controlled and hence heritable. The environment mostly influenced the variations in seed weight and seed yield. Strong positive genetic correlations were obtained between plumule length, seedling vigour, and emergence rate index. The principal component analysis identified plumule length, seedling vigour, seed weight, and seed yield as characters mostly responsible for discrimination among the genotypes, and hence, they could be used as dependable selection criteria. Four genotypes, Yandev 55, E8, C-K-Z, and Type A, were identified as having rapid seedling vigour with high seed germination, field emergence, and seed yield. These could form an initial gene pool to provide materials for further studies.