Pre-Reading Skills in Trinidad and Tobago Students in the First Three Years of School
Keywords:Primary School Students, Reading Ability, Trinidad and Tobago
Phonemic awareness is an important precursor of reading and has been found to predict reading comprehension scores in the middle and upper elementary school grades avove and beyond contributions by tests of ability. In this study, we examined scores on the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale (MS-PAS) in a sample of over 4,000 students attending schools in the eight educational regions of Trinidad and Tobago. Results indicated that MS-PAS scores were reliable in this sample. A weak relationship was found between MS-PAS scores and age, and a moderate relationshp was found between MS-PAS scores and grade level. There were regional and grade level differences in scores, with higher grades obtaining higher score. However, no gender differences were found at any grade level. It is suggested that phonemic awareness scores could serve as an early indicator of students in need of additional assistance in the classroom.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).