The Promotion of Thinking in Selected Lower Secondary Science Classrooms in Trinidad and Tobago: Implications for Teachers' Education

Susan Herbert, Joycelyn Rampersad


This article reports on a study into the levels of thinking promoted in selected lower secondary science classrooms in Trinidad and Tobago. Twenty-seven teachers, 10 of whom were professionally certified, were observed twice. The levels of thinking were inferred from an analysis of teaching/learning strategies, teachers' and students' questions, the process skills used, and types of classroom interactions. The findings indicate that the teachers, both professionally certified, and uncertified, were unable to promote higher-order thinking in their classrooms. There are implications for Teacher education programmes.


Teaching Methods; Critical Thinking; Secondary School Students; Secondary School Science; Lower Secondary Education; Science Education; Teacher Education; Trinidad and Tobago

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